DAY #03 – Free GS Answer Writing Practice


1. Enumerate various types of marine resources. Also comment in how these resources shape geopolitics


The biotic and abiotic resources found in the oceanic water and bottoms are called Marine resources ,example wave energy, tidal energy, minerals, fossil fuels ,etc.

Various types of Marine resources:

Marine biological Resources:

  • Food resourcesIt includes animal resources like Fishes, crabs, prawns, zoo planktons etc. and Plant resources (Phytoplankton’s, sea grass etc.)
  • Non Food resourcesIt includes coral reefs which have aesthetic value as well they are major sources of tourism

Marine Mineral resources:

  • Sub Surfacial deposits-They are mostly located in continental shelf areas. These deposits are major reservoirs of oil, gas, tin etc.
  • Deep Bottom deposits-They contain minerals like polymetallic nodules like Manganese, Nickel and cobalt etc.
  • Surfacial deposits-They contain huge resources of sand, gravel,etc.

Energy resources:

  • Conventional energyThis includes minerals like oil and gas, huge reserves of which are found in oceans
  • Non conventional energyIt includes sources of energy like Tidal energy, Wave energy, biomass energy etc. They are still not economical but in future they have huge potential

Freshwater resources:

  • Manufactured water (transformation of saline sea water through the processes of desalination into potable water)
  • Geopolitics attempts to explain international politics in terms of geography-that is the location, size and resources of places. With population explosion and rapid growth of economic activities at sea, the impact of marine resources on geopolitics is increasing day by day

Marine resources shape geopolitics as

  • Some of major conflict points in oceanic areas like South China Sea or east china sea are result of different interpretations of area as they have huge potential marine resources like oil and gas
  • Management of fisheries-Management of fish stocks is now a major geopolitical issue that often lead to struggles. Eg. Indian fisherman often arrested by Srilankan Navy. Also, WTO negotiations on eliminating certain types of fisheries subsidies- the main driver of overfishing, lead to grouping and differences among countries
  • Calculation of exclusive economic zone(EEZ) often involves serious discussions and geopolitical maneuvers as it involves marine resources. Provision of EEZ has created geopolitical tensions due to claim by nations even on tiny islands due to their resource potential 
  • Arctic is slowly growing into new arena of geopolitics, as with impeding ice melt ,new routes and new areas of resources will be open for exploration
  • Formation of Multilateral organizations- such as United Nations Division for ocean affairs and the law of sea; The Arctic council show how marine resources are influencing the geopolitics
  • Securing lines of communication is another aspect of geopolitics. Whether its China’s Gwadar port and string of pearls or India’s Chabhar port, all are guided to secure SLOC’s

With rapidly dwindling land based resources and ever increasing population, future wars will be contested over these marine resources. Aim of geopolitics should be that these resources should be exploited in a sustainable manner


2. Explain the problems and strategies for apiculture development in India


As per FAO, India ranks eighth in the world in terms of honey production. India has a potential of about 200million honey bee colonies as against 3.4million honey bee colonies today

Problems in Apiculture industry in India

1) Production issues:

  • Species selection-KVIC promotes A.C. Indica ,the Asian honey bee. All over the world the Italian honeybee is acclaimed to be the choice for commercial beekeeping. However the controversy regarding the suitability of the species that is Asian honeybee, A.C. Indica and European honeybee for beekeeping in India which has been going on for the last three decades gave a severe setback
  • Lack of technical knowledge for efficient management-It is essential to have requisite infrastructure for the production of large volumes of genetically superior genes for supply to the beekeepers. This a major constraint, Beekeepers are not aware of international methods of efficient management
  • Faulty practices-Efficient swarm control is not practiced .Most beekeepers just divide colonies to prevent swarming. Beekeepers mostly maintain colonies on a single chamber leading to weak colonies that die in dearth periods
  • Poor quality control for the honey production-Some beekeepers extract honey from brood frames which damages the brood and the honey is extracted is of poor quality. Lack of maintenance of separate super chambers for the honey production. Honey is also poorly stored by beekeepers, Food grade plastic containers are not developed for storing honey

2) Governance issues:

  • Lack of credit-Lack of sufficient financial help from Government and lending institutions for the development of beekeeping.Beekeeping request long term loans at easy rates of interest 
  • Beekeeping is neither considered an industry nor an agricultural activity and there is no tax benefit on beekeeping income
  • Use of pesticides-indiscriminate use of pesticides leads to the destruction of bee colonies in the field. There is no legislation restricting the farmer from the use of pesticides that are harmful to be colonies
  • Lack of institutional support-there is no concept of beekeeping inspectors or trainers in beekeeping at the village or even at district level.There is lack of regional and also Central bee disease analysis laboratories

Strategies for apiculture:

Following the recommendations of Bibek Debroy committee

1) Institutionalize National Bee Board and advancing beekeeping through multiple mechanisms such as

  • Setting up of new integrated bee development centers and strengthening the existing ones
  • Creating a honey price stabilization fund
  • Collection of data on important aspects of apiculture

2) Simplifying procedures and specify clear standards for ease of exporting honey and other bee products

3) Expansion of activities: beekeeping should not be restricted to honey and wax only, Instead marketing of bee products such as pollen, royal jelly and bee venom can contribute to the income of Indian farmers

4)Integration-Recognise honey bees as inputs to agriculture and consider landless beekeepers as farmers

5) Training and development of beekeepers should be provided by state governments

6)National and regional infrastructure should be developed for storage, processing and marketing of honey and other bee products

7)Plantation of bee friendly flora and engaging of women SHGs in managing such plantation

8) Recognition or apiculture as a subject for advanced research under the aegis of ICAR

Increasing the number of bee related colonies will not only increase the Production of bee related activities but will boost overall agricultural and horticultural productivity

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