MASTER THE CURRENT AFFAIRS – DAY 185

Q.1) With reference to Anti-dumping duty, consider the following statements:

1. It is a measure to protect domestic industry and act as an instrument to establish fair trade.
2. Import of cheap products through illegal trade channels like smuggling falls within the purview of dumping.
3. The use of anti-dumping measure as an instrument of fair competition is permitted by the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 3 only
b. 1 and 2 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: A
Anti-Dumping Duty

Dumping is said to occur when the goods are exported by a country to another country at a price lower than its normal value.
This is an unfair trade practice which can have a distortive effect on international trade.
Anti-dumping is a measure to rectify the situation arising out of the dumping of goods and its trade distortive effect.
In fact, anti-dumping is an instrument for ensuring fair trade and is not a measure of protection per se for the domestic industry.
It provides relief to the domestic industry against the injury caused by dumping.
The use of anti-dumping measure as an instrument of fair competition is permitted by the WTO.
Recent Developments
The Union government recently revoked anti-dumping duty (ADD) on viscose staple fibre originating in or imported from China and Indonesia.
As an impact, the fibre will be available in India at competitive prices and thus benefit downstream sectors — weaving and garmenting.
Indian textile units will be able to export viscose products at internationally competitive prices and produce more of viscose-based products.
Viscose is largely used by the textile and clothing industry to make apparel, mainly for women and children, in the domestic market.

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding the “Primordial Black Holes”:
1. PBHs were formed during the Hot Big Bang phase.
2. PBH can be massively large as 3000kms or be extremely tiny like nucleus of an atom.
Which of the following statements given above is/are NOT correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D
Notes:
Primordial Black Holes (PBH) were formed during the Hot Big Bang phase.
PBH can be massively large as 3000kms or be extremely tiny like nucleus of an atom.
It is believed that they are formed as a result of collapsing radiations as opposed to the collapse of massive stars, which is the case of any other black holes.
A recent study on Primordial black holes has confirmed that this marginal rise in potential energy resulted in birth of several PBHs and also emitted very powerful gravitational waves.
Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), has studied primordial black holes that were born as a result of a tiny bump in the potential energy levels of the universe, at a time when it was expanding rapidly.

Q.3) Consider the following statements with respective to Biomethanation

1. Fermenting bacteria, Organic acid oxidizing bacteria, and Methanogenic archaea are group of microorganisms involved in the process.
2. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate change has launched a loan interest subvention scheme for biomethanation projects.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: B
Biomethanation
It is a process by which organic material is microbiologically converted under anaerobic conditions to biogas.
Three main physiological groups of microorganisms are involved: fermenting bacteria, organic acid oxidizing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea.
Biomethanation has strong potential for the production of energy from organic residues and wastes.
It will help to reduce the use of fossil fuels and thus reduce CO(2) emission.
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has launched a loan interest subvention scheme in association with United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) to provide financial assistance for innovative waste to energy bio-methanation projects.

Q.4) Which of the following country is NOT a member of Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD, also known as the Quad)?
a) Japan
b) South Korea
c) Australia
d) United States of America

Answer: B
Notes:
The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD), better known as the ‘Quad’, started as a strategic dialogue in 2007.
The dialogue members included India, the US, Australia and Japan.
It was established to check the growth of Chinese power in what was still referred to as ‘Asia-Pacific’, and which has since become ‘Indo-Pacific’.
The Quad had its real genesis in the response to the 2004-2005 Asian Tsunami when India showed prowess in spearheading the relief and rescue effort in South East Asia.
However, the principal aim of the Quad was strategic, with a quest to manage the consequences for the regional balance of power in the Indo-Pacific due to the scale and scope of China’s rise.


Q.5) Consider the following statements with respective to Asiatic Lion

1. Asiatic lions in Gir wildlife sanctuary has low genetic diversity, making it vulnerable to threats of extension from epidemics.
2. Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) created Project Lion to conserve Asiatic lions in Gir forest.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: A
Asiatic Lion
The population in Gir has low genetic diversity, making it vulnerable to threats of extension from epidemics.
It is listed as ‘Endangered’ under the IUCN Red List.
Its population is restricted to the state of Gujarat in India (Gir National Park).
The Wildlife Institute of India, along with the Gujarat Forest Department, had created a Project Lion.
The project will involve habitat development by engaging modern technologies in management as well as in addressing the issue of diseases in lion.
Under Project Lion following sanctuaries are identified for conservation of Lions
Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh.
Madhav National Park, Madhya Pradesh.
Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan.
Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan.
Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh.
Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan.
Jessore-Balaram Ambaji WLS and adjoining landscape, Gujarat.

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