Q.1) Consider the following statements about Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol
1.It aims to phase down all the ozone depleting substances by cutting both their production and consumption.
2.It is legally binding and came into force in 2019.
3.Under the amendment, India’s reduction of Hydroflurocarbon (HFC) will begin from 2028 and target is to reduce it by 80% by the year 2047.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
a. 2 only
b. 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 2 and 3 only
Answer : D
Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol
Union Cabinet has recently approved the ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the ozone layer.
In 2016, Kigali amendment was agreed by more than 170 countries and came into force in 2019.
It is legally binding.
The amendment aims to phase down Hydroflurocarbon (HFC) i.e to achieve over 80% reduction in HFC by 2047.
HFCs were introduced as a replacement to ozone depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons.
Thus, HFCs have zero ozone depleting potential but known to be hundreds, even thousands, of times more potent than carbon dioxide in their ability to cause global warming.
With the Kigali Amendment, the Montreal Protocol has become an even more powerful instrument against global warming.
Under the amendment, India’s reduction of Hydroflurocarbon (HFC) will begin from 2028 and target is to reduce it by 80% by the year 2047.
Q.2) Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect with respective to Drone Forensic Lab
1.India’s first Drone Forensic Lab and Research Centre has setup in Gujarat by Ministry of Civil Aviation
2.It will look into both threat aspects of a drone, and production of drones for the use of the police force.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2
Answer : A
Drone Forensic Lab
The Kerala Police department will launch a first-of-its-kind Drone Forensic Lab and Research Centre in the state.
It will help in keeping a watch over unauthorized drones and also for the production of drones for the use of the police force.
This lab-cum-research centre will look into both utility and threat aspects of a drone.
It had recently analysed a drone brought down by the Border Security Force (BSF) near the international border in Kathua district in Jammu and Kashmir and helped the local enforcement zero in on its illegal operator.
Q.3) With reference to SAMVAD initiative, consider the following statements:
1.It is an initiative of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
2.It is aimed at mental health outreach for elderly.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer : D
SAMVAD (Support, Advocacy & Mental health interventions for children in Vulnerable circumstances And Distress) is a National Initiative and Integrated Resource that works in child protection, mental health and psychosocial care.
The programme is aimed at mental health outreach for children who are abandoned and orphaned, child survivors of trafficking, or in conflict with law.
SAMVAD is an initiative of the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
The National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences is in charge of the implementation body (NIMHANS).
The NIMHANS is the world’s leading centre for mental health and neuroscience research and teaching. It is run independently by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
With the recent launch of 2nd phase of SAMVAD, it will engage with functionaries in Panchayats thereby ushering in a silent revolution in addressing psychosocial challenges amongst vulnerable children.
SAMVAD is slated to begin work with Panchayati Raj systems to integrate child protection and mental health in aspirational districts across the country to facilitate awareness generation and improve service delivery at the grassroot level.
SAMVAD’s new initiatives with regards to mental health and psychosocial care of children in difficult circumstances encompasses a specialized training curriculum on childhood trauma, interventions for children in conflict with the law, forensics in child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, education and mental health support to children with special needs, protection and care in the context of adoption and foster care and integration of child protection and mental health in the Panchayati Raj systems.
Q.4) Recently, the QUAD included Taiwan Strait in talks for peace and stability. The Taiwan Strait connects:
a) South China Sea to Java Sea
b) Java Sea to Calebes Sea
c) South China Sea to East China Sea
d) Philippine Sea to East China Sea
Answer : C
The Taiwan Strait is a 180-kilometer wide strait separating the island of Taiwan and continental Asia. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north.
Among the most heavily policed strips of water in the world, the strait has remained an active battlefield between People’s Republic of China (mainland China) and republic of China (Taiwan).
It is also part of flashpoint between US-China over freedom-of-navigation in Indo-Pacific region.
Q.5) Consider the following statements:
1. Gravity bends the light in the process of attracting it.
2. GPS on our phones is an example of the application of special theory of relativity.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Both statements are correct
Special theory of relativity
Einstein’s theory establishes that time moves slower within a moving body when measured from a point at rest (but moves normally within the moving body itself) and the length of the moving body contracts when measured from an outside point at rest. When a moving body emits light, the length contraction and time slowdown of the moving body are just exactly what are needed to restore the speed of light to its constant value. An example of the application of the special theory of relativity is the use of GPS on our phones
Satellites account for time differences in their clocks due to their high speed and their positions away from earth’s gravity, and then calculate the geolocation.
General theory of relativity
It tries to explain how does gravitational force act instantaneously between massive stars and planets that are millions of miles away
Einstein took help of geometry of curved spaces and multi-dimensional geometry to understand the effect of gravitational force.
As per this theory, space and time form a continuum, like a fabric, and every object in the universe distorts this fabric, like a large ball distorts a tight trampoline sheet. This distortion is gravity.
It produces two effects.
One, the fabric causes any other object in the vicinity to move towards the heavier object and this is why gravity causes an object to pull things towards it
Two, it bends light in the process of attracting it which is recently captured by LIGO observatory
This theory applies to all forms of motion, including those where gravity does not appear.