MASTER THE CURRENT AFFAIRS – DAY 229

Q.1) Consider the following statements:

1. The increase in CO2 from 2019 to 2020 was slightly lower than that observed from 2018 to 2019.
2. The increase in methane from 2019 to 2020 was higher than that observed from 2018 to 2019.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C
State of the Climate in Asia Report, 2020

This report was launched by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).
Carbon dioxide
The report highlighted that the increase in CO2 from 2019 to 2020 was slightly lower than that observed from 2018 to 2019 but higher than the average annual growth rate over the last decade.
This is despite the approximately 5.6% drop in fossil fuel CO2 emissions in 2020 due to restrictions related to the pandemic.
Methane
For methane, the increase from 2019 to 2020 was higher than that observed from 2018 to 2019 and also higher than the average annual growth rate over the last decade.
Nitrous Oxides
For nitrous oxides also, the increase was higher and also than the average annual growth rate over the past 10 years.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2020, radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) increased by 47%, with CO2 accounting for about 80% of this increase.
Concentration of CO2, the most significant greenhouse gas, reached 413.2 parts per million in 2020 and is 149% of the pre-industrial level.
Methane (CH4) is 262% and nitrous oxide (N2O) is 123% of the levels in 1750 when human activities started disrupting earth’s natural equilibrium.

Q.2) Consider the following statements with respect to Green Day Ahead Market (GDAM)

1. It is a new market segment for trading in renewable energy following the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) approval.
2. India is the only large electricity market in the world to implement a GDAM exclusively for renewable energy.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C
Green-Term Ahead Market (G-TAM)
It is a new market segment for trading in renewable energy following the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) approval on a day-ahead basis.
The GDAM will enable electricity generation and distribution companies to buy or sell renewable energy through open access.
The Green Day-ahead market will operate in an integrated way with the conventional day-ahead market.
The Exchanges will offer the market participants to submit bids together for both conventional and renewable energy through the separate bidding windows.
National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC), POSOCO, as the Nodal Agency, has set up the latest technologies and communication infrastructure for facilitating the Green Day Ahead Market.
Day-Ahead-Market (DAM)
It is a physical electricity trading market for deliveries for any/some/all 15 minute time blocks in 24 hours of next day starting from midnight.
The prices and quantum of electricity to be traded are determined through a double sided closed auction bidding process

Q.3) Consider the following statements:

1. The Centre can issue directions to a state to implement the laws made by Parliament
2. If states does not comply with the directions, the Centre can move to the court
3. Chief Secretaries of the states are responsible for implementing laws in the state
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 2 only
d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer : D
The Centre has other powers to ensure that its laws are implemented. The Centre can issue directions to a state to implement the laws made by Parliament. If states do not comply with the directions, the Centre can move the court seeking a permanent injunction against the states to force them to comply with the law. Non-compliance of court orders can result in contempt of court, and the court usually hauls up the chief secretaries of the states responsible for implementing laws.
Is it unusual for states to challenge laws made by Parliament?
Under the Constitution, laws made by Parliament are presumed to be constitutional until a court holds otherwise. However, in India’s quasi-federal constitutional structure, inter-governmental disputes are not uncommon.
The framers of the Constitution expected such differences, and added the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court for their resolution. The quasi-federal structure envisaged in 1950 has consolidated into defined powers of the states.

Q.4) Consider the following statements:

1. The Bay of Bengal is historically the warmer ocean that seeds low pressures and cyclones that bring rain to India.
2. In recent years, the Arabian Sea too has been warmer than normal, and leading to significant cyclonic activity.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : C
October is the month when the southwest monsoon entirely retreats from India and the northeast monsoon sets in, bringing rain over Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, coastal Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
Both low pressures as well as western disturbances are tangentially connected to the larger pattern of global warming.
The Bay of Bengal is historically the warmer ocean that seeds low pressures and cyclones that bring rain to India.
In recent years however, the Arabian Sea, too, has been warmer than normal, and leading to significant cyclonic activity.
Overall elevated temperatures are also contributing to warmer waters in the Arctic Ocean and drawing colder air from the poles with greater intensity. This added to the increased moisture, thereby seeding more intense western disturbance activity over north India.

Q.5) With reference to NIPUN Bharat Mission, consider the following statements:
1. It aims for a robust skill development architecture in the age group of sixteen to eighteen years.
2. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship will implement this mission.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D
Notes:
Both statements are incorrect.
NIPUN Bharat Mission aims to improve foundational literacy and numeracy of children in the age group of three to nine years.
Key Features of the Mission:
Implementation: The mission will be implemented by the Union Education Ministry in collaboration with states through the flagship school education program Samagra Shiksha.
Target: The mission has set a target that by 2026-27, every Class 3 child should be able to read with understanding at the rate of at least 60 words per minute. Further, the child should be able to read and write numbers up to 9,999 and solve simple multiplication problems.
Survey: A National Achievement Survey of Class 3 students will be conducted to set a baseline to track the future progress of the mission.
Mother Tongue: The mission also emphasizes the importance of using a child’s mother tongue in teaching, a principle of the National Education Policy 2020.

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