Daily Current Affairs Quiz

Q.1) Which reference to the religious practices in India, the “Bisapanthi” sect belongs to
(a) Buddhism
(b) Shaivism
(c) Jainism
(d) Vaishnavism

Answer : C

Jains are divided into two major sects: the Digambara (meaning sky clad or naked) sect and the
Svetambara (meaning white-clad) sect. Both sects accept the basic Jain philosophy and the five basic vows non-violence (Ahimsa), truth (Satya), non-stealing (Asteya), celibacy/chastity (Brahmacharya), non-attachment/non-possession (Aparigraha). But they differed with each other with respect to the details of the life of Mahavira, the spiritual status of women, rituals, which texts should be accepted as scripture.The Digambara sect is more austere and is closer in its ways to the Jains at the time of Mahavira.
• Digambara: Various sub-sects under it:
o Bisapanth: The followers of Bisapantha support the Dharma-gurus, that is, religious authorities known as Bhattarakas who are also the heads of Jaina Mathas, that is, religious monasteries. The Bisapanthas, in their temples, worship the idols of Tirthankaras and also the idols of Ksetrapala, Padmavati and other deities. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.
o Terapanth: Terapantha arose in North India in the year 1683 of the Vikram Era as a revolt against the domination and conduct of the Bhattarakas. i.e. religious authorities, of the Digambara Jainas. As a result in this sub-sect. the Bhattarakas are not much respected. In their temples, the Terapanthis install the idols of Tirthankaras and not of Ksetrapala, Padmavati and other deities.
o Taranapanth: The sub-sect Taranapantha is known after its founder Tarana-Svami or Tarana-Tarana- Svami (1448-1515 A.D.). This sub-sect is also called Samaiyapantha because its followers worship Sarnaya, i.e., sacred books and not the idols.
• Svetambara: Various sub-sects under it:
o Murtipujaka: Murtipujaka Svetambaras are known as Murtipujakas since they are the thorough worshippers of idols. They offer flowers, fruits, saffron, etc. to their idols and invariably adorn them with rich clothes and jeweled ornaments.
o Sthanakvasi: The Sthanakvasi arose not directly from the Svetambaras but as reformers of an older reforming sect, viz., the Lonka sect of Jainism. The main principle of this sect was not to practice idol-worship.
o Terapanth: The Terapanthis are non-idolatrous and are very finely organized under the complete Direction of one Acharya, that is, religious head. The Terapanthi sub-sect was founded by Swami Bhikkanaji Maharaj.

Q.2) Which of the following bodies are quasi- judicial in nature and constitutional bodies?

1. Election Commission of India
2. Central Information Commission
3. National Human Rights Commission
4. Finance Commission
Select the correct answer using the code below.
(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 4 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer : B

Quasi-judicial bodies have powers analogous to that of the law-imposing bodies but these are not
courts. They have all the powers of a civil court. They primarily oversee the administrative zones. The
courts have the power to supervise over all types of disputes but the quasi-judicial bodies are the ones
with the powers of imposing laws on administrative agencies. These organizations generally have
authorities of settlement in matters like the breach of discipline, conduct rules, and trust in the matters of
money or otherwise. Their powers are usually limited to a particular area of expertise, such as financial
markets, employment laws, public standards, immigration, or regulation.
Awards and judgments of quasi-judicial bodies often depend on a pre-determined set of rules or
punishment depending on the nature and gravity of the offense committed. Such punishment may be
legally enforceable under the law of a country, it can be challenged in a court of law which is the final
vital authority.
Some important non-constitutional quasi-judicial bodies are:
• National Human Rights Commission
• State Human Rights Commission
• Central Information Commission
• State Information Commission
• National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
• State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
• District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum
• Competition Commission of India
All of the bodies given above are statutory bodies

• Election Commission of India and the Finance Commission are both Constitutional bodies and quasi-
judicial in nature. Hence only options 1 and 4 are correct.

Q.3)  Consider the following pairs:
Range/Peak Himalayan Type
1. Dhauladhar : Punjab Himalayas
2. Dhaulagiri : Nepal Himalayas
3. Nanda Devi : Kumaon Himalayas
4. Namcha Barwa : Assam Himalayas
Which of the pair given above are correctly matched?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer : D

Besides the longitudinal divisions, the Himalayas have been divided on the basis of regions from west to
east. These divisions have been demarcated by river valleys.
• Punjab Himalaya: The part of the Himalayas lying between Indus and Satluj has been traditionally
known as Punjab Himalaya but it is also known regionally as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya from
west to east respectively. Karakoram, Zaskar, Ladakh, Pir panjal, Dhola Dhar are the main ranges of
this section
• Kumaon Himalayas: The part of the Himalayas lying between Satluj and Kali rivers. Nanda Devi,
Kamet, Trishul, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri are important peak.
• Nepal Himalayas: The part of the Himalayas lying between Kali and Teesta. This is the tallest section of
Himalayas and is covered by peaks of perpetual snow. Mount Everest is the highest peak of the world is
found in this region. Other important Peaks are Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Dhaula Giri, and
Anapurna.
• Assam Himalayas: The part lying between Teesta and Dihang rivers. This part of Himalayas spread over
large parts so Sikkim, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The important Peaks of this region are Namcha
Barwa, Kuala Kangri, and Chomo Lhari
• The Brahmaputra mark the easternmost boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the Dihang gorge, the
Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India. They are known as
the Purvachal or the Eastern hills and mountains. These hills running through the north-eastern states
are mostly composed of strong sandstones which are sedimentary rocks. Covered with dense forests, they mostly run as parallel ranges and valleys.

Q.4)  Which is the southernmost point of the continent of Africa?
(a) South East Cape
(b) Cape of Agulhas
(c) Cape Horn
(d) Cape Leeuwin

Answer : B

• Cape Agulhas: The southernmost part of the African continent is the former clipper route as named by
sailors, but currently, the region is called the Cape Agulhas. This area is not only the southernmost part of
Africa but it is also the start of the borderline between the Atlantic and the Indian oceans. Hence option
(b) is correct.

• Cape Horn is a rocky headland on Hornos Island, in southern Chile’s Tierra del Fuego archipelago. It’s
surrounded by wild seas off the southern tip of South America where the Pacific and Atlantic oceans
meet.
• Cape Leeuwin is the most south-westerly mainland point of the Australian continent, in the state of
Western Australia. A few small islands and rocks, the St Alouarn Islands, extend further in Flinders Bay
to the east of the cape.
• The South East Cape is a cape located at the southernmost point of the main island of Tasmania, the
southernmost state of Australia.

Q.

Q.5) Which of the following is known as the “graveyard of RBCs”?
(a) Spleen
(b) Bone Marrow
(c) Mitochondria
(d) Small intestine

Answer : A

• RBCs have an average life span of 120 days after which they are destroyed in the spleen (graveyard
of RBCs). The spleen plays multiple supporting roles in the body. It acts as a filter for blood as part of the
immune system. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are
stored there. The spleen also helps fight certain kinds of bacteria that cause pneumonia and meningitis.

Q.6)  Which of the following is/are correct with reference to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety?
1. It is an international agreement on biosafety as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
2. It governs the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.
3. It regulates access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer : C

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement on biosafety as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Hence, statement 1
is correct.
• The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
• It is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
• It was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity and entered into force on 11 September 2003. India is a party to the protocol having ratified
it on January 23, 2003.
• The Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, provides a legal framework for implementing that objective of access and benefit-sharing of genetic
resources. Hence statement 3 is not correct.

Q.7)  Consider the following statements:
1. A three-tier Panchayati Raj system was first recommended by Balwant Rai Mehta committee.
2. Panchayats in all the states of India have been established by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : A

Government of India appointed a committee in 1957 to examine the working of the Community
Development Programme (1952) and the National Extension Service (1953) and to suggest measures for
their better working.
• The chairman of this committee was Balwant Rai G Mehta.
• The committee submitted its report in November 1957 and recommended the establishment of the scheme of ‘democratic decentralization’, which ultimately came to be known as Panchayati Raj.
• It recommended the establishment of a three-tier Panchayati Raj system—gram panchayat at the village level, panchayat samiti at the block level and Zila Parishad at the district level. Hence statement 1 is correct.
• Panchayati Raj in India signifies the system of rural local self-government.
• It has been established in all the states of India by the Acts of the state legislatures (not by the 73rd
amendment act) to build democracy at the grass root level. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

Q.8)  Consider the following statements regarding François Bernier:
1. He visited India during the Mughal rule and served as a physician to Dara Shikoh.
2. He glorified the Indian culture and advocated it as more developed in comparison to the European one.
3. His accounts were mostly circulated as manuscripts and remained unpublished.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) None

Answer : A

François Bernier, a Frenchman, was a doctor, political philosopher, and historian. He visited India during
the reign of the Mughal Empire and was in India for 12 years. He was closely associated with the Mughal
court, as a physician to Prince Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Emperor Shah Jahan, and later as an
intellectual and scientist, with Danish and Khan, an Armenian noble at the Mughal court. Hence,
statement 1 is correct.
• He visited several parts of India frequently compared to what he saw in India with the situation in Europe.
He dedicated his major writing to Louis XIV, the king of France, and many of his other works were
written in the form of letters to influential officials and ministers. In virtually every instance Bernier
described what he saw in India as a bleak situation in comparison to developments in Europe.
• Bernier’s Travels in the Mughal Empire is marked by detailed observations, critical insights, and
reflection. His account contains discussions trying to place the history of the Mughals within some sort of
a universal framework. He constantly compared Mughal India with contemporary Europe, generally
emphasizing the superiority of the latter. His representation of India works on the model of binary
opposition, where India is presented as the inverse of Europe. He also ordered the perceived differences
hierarchically, so that India appeared to be inferior to the Western world. Hence statement 2 is not
correct.
• According to Bernier, one of the fundamental differences between Mughal India and Europe was
the lack of private property in land in the former. He was a firm believer in the virtues of private
property and saw crown ownership of land as being harmful to both the state and its people. He thought
that in the Mughal Empire the emperor owned all the land and distributed it among his nobles and that this
had disastrous consequences for the economy and society. This perception was not unique to Bernier but
is found in most travelers’ accounts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
• Owing to crown ownership of land, argued Bernier, landholders could not pass on their land to their
children. So they were averse to any long-term investment in the sustenance and expansion of production.
The absence of private property in land had, therefore, prevented the emergence of the class of
“improving” landlords (as in Western Europe) with a concern to maintain or improve the land. It
had led to the uniform ruination of agriculture, excessive oppression of the peasantry and a
continuous decline in the living standards of all sections of society, except the ruling aristocracy.
• As an extension of this, Bernier described Indian society as consisting of undifferentiated masses of
impoverished people, subjugated by a small minority of a very rich and powerful ruling
class. Between the poorest of the poor and the richest of the rich, there was no social group or class worth
the name. Bernier confidently asserted: “There is no middle state in India.”
• His works were published in France in 1670-71 and translated into English, Dutch, German and Italian
within the next five years. Between 1670and 1725 his account was reprinted eight times in French, and by 1684 it had been reprinted three times in English. This was in marked contrast to the accounts in Arabic
and Persian, which circulated as manuscripts and were generally not published before 1800. Hence,
statement 3 is not correct.

Q.9)  With reference to the Legislative Councils, consider the following statements:
1. It is the indirectly elected upper house in the state legislature present in 6 states only.
2. The creation of the legislative council of states needs a constitutional amendment.
3. It is a permanent body which cannot be dissolved.
4. It enjoys equal powers as the legislative assembly for ordinary bills.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer : B

India has a bicameral system i.e., two Houses of Parliament. At the state level, the equivalent of the Lok Sabha is the Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly; that of the Rajya Sabha is the Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council. A second House of the legislature is considered important for two reasons: one, to act as a check on hasty actions by the popularly elected House and, two, to ensure that individuals who might not be cut out for the rough-and-tumble of direct elections too are able to contribute to the legislative process.
• Statement 1 is correct: Most of the members of the legislative council are indirectly elected. 5/6th of the members are indirectly elected and the Governor also nominates 1/6th of the members.
• The maximum strength of the council is fixed at one-third of the total strength of the assembly and the minimum strength is fixed at 40.
• Currently, 6 Indian states have it Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Recently the legislative council of Jammu and Kashmir was abolished.
• Statement 2 is not correct: the Parliament can abolish a legislative council or create it if the legislative assembly of the concerned state passes a resolution to that effect. Such a specific resolution must be passed by the state assembly by a special majority. This Act of Parliament is not to be deemed as an amendment of the Constitution for the purposes of Article 368 and is passed as an ordinary piece of legislation by a simple majority.
• Statement 3 is correct: Like the Rajya Sabha, the legislative council is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. But, one-third of its members retire on the expiration of every second year.
• Statement 4 is not correct: An ordinary bill can originate in either House of the state legislature. If the
assembly rejects the amendments suggested by the council or the council rejects the bill altogether or does not take any action for three months, then the assembly may pass the bill again and transmit the same to the council. If the council rejects the bill again or passes the bill with amendments not acceptable to the assembly or does not pass the bill within one month, then the bill is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses in the form in which it was passed by the assembly for the second time.
• Therefore, the ultimate power of passing an ordinary bill is vested in the assembly. At most, the council can detain or delay the bill for a period of four months—three months in the first instance and one month in the second instance. The Constitution does not provide for the mechanism of a joint sitting of both the Houses.

Q.10) Which of the following statements is not correct regarding the famous Mughal structure, ‘Ibadat khana’?
(a) It was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Shahjahan.
(b) The origins of ‘Din-i-ilahi’ could be traced to Ibadat khana.
(c) It is a hall in which Akbar held discussions with scholars of various religions.
(d) The evidence of this complex is found in the miniature painting of “Akbarnama”.

Answer : A

The Ibādat Khāna (House of Worship) was a meeting house built in 1575 CE by the Mughal Emperor
Akbar (r. 1556–1605) at Fatehpur Sikri to gather spiritual leaders of different religious grounds so as to conduct a discussion on the teachings of the respective religious leaders. Hence option (a) is not correct.
• the construction of ‘Ibadat Khana’ in 1575, where Muslim scholars would come together to have discussions on Islam to enlightening emperor Akbar. The ‘House of Worship’ soon became a place for arguments, which led to Akbar opening the gates for scholars of other religions, thus making it the first-ever attempt at secularism, also known as ‘Din-i-Ilahi’. Here, the best elements from all religions were encouraged. He encouraged Hindus, Roman Catholics, Zoroastrians, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs and even atheists to participate. Religious leaders and philosophers from around this diverse empire, as well as those passing through, were invited to Akbar’s Thursday evening discussions
• The excavated complex of Ibadat khana at ‘Fatehpur Sikri’ has been done with the image in a miniature painting of Akbarnama housed at Chester Beatty Library. The painting convinced the excavators about he site is that of Ibadat Khana. This famous Ibadat Khana (at Fatehpur Sikri), a house to hold religious
discourses of all faiths was a notable step in this regard. Thus, Akbar himself became the torchbearer for the fundamental unity of various faiths which differed only on the surface.
• About Shahjahan:
o Shah Jahan (Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram) was one of the most successful emperors of the Mughal Empire. He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir.
o After winning the war of succession post the demise of his father Jahangir, Shah Jahan successfully ruled the empire for 30 years(1628-1658).
o He is best known for the construction of the Taj Mahal, which he built in the memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
o He is also the founder of Shahjahanabad in Delhi.
o The exquisite ‘Peacock Throne’, he got built for himself.
o During his final days, he was held captive by his son Aurangzeb, who went on to succeed him to the throne.

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