Daily Current Affairs Quiz #2 #3

1. Which state of India is referred to as the ‘molasses basin’?
(a) Maharashtra
(b) Uttarakhand
(c) Mizoram
(d) Kerala

Answer : C

The topography of Mizoram mostly consists of low, elongated hills of poorly consolidated sedimentary rock that is easily and rapidly eroded, called molasses.
• Molasses basins are formed when a major ramp overthrust is active and the intact continent is flexed down in front of the overriding mountain range, a foreland basin is formed by the flexure.
• Foreland basins usually exist as subsurface features that have been filled with debris eroded from the advancing overthrust slice of crust. These deposits, called molasse, can, in turn, be folded and thrust over one another shortly after they are deposited.
• Fold and thrust belts in such material, as found at the northern edge of the Alps or at the foot of most of the Himalayas, are often narrow, composed of only one or two parallel folds and faults.

2. “It is a region of shallow depth up to 200 meters. It supports plants rooted in the seafloor and the area is rich in the density and diversity of organisms owing to the penetration of light and presence of nutrients. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are abundant in this zone.”
The above passage refers to which of the following zones of a marine ecosystem?
(a) Littoral
(b) Benthic
(c) Neritic
(d) Pelagic

Answer: C

The major zones in a marine ecosystem are-
• Littoral: This is the seashore area extending between the highest high tide and lowest low tide levels.
Waves and tides have a maximum effect on this zone. This zone is sometimes exposed to air. Different
types of species like algae, starfish, crustaceans, etc. are found in this zone. It supports the growth of algae and other sea animals Common animals found here includes snails, clams, barnacles, crustaceans, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, etc.
• Neritic: This is a region shallow enough (up to 200 m depth) to support plants rooted in the seafloor. This constitutes the edge of the continental shelf. This area is rich in the density and diversity of organisms owing to the penetration of light to this depth of the sea and owing to the presence of nutrients washed down from the land. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are abundant in this zone. Extensive communities of giant kelps, different types of fishes, snails, whales, sea-otters, sea-snakes and large squids, are found in this zone. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.
• Pelagic: This is the open area below the Neritic region. On the surface of this zone, various types of phytoplankton are found. In addition, there is zooplankton along with shrimp and jellyfish, etc.
• Benthic: This forms the floor of the ocean. Production, in this zone, is limited by low nutrient supply. Most of the organisms found here are luminescent. Rooted organisms are sea lilies, sponges, etc. Snails and clams are embedded in the mud whereas starfish and sea urchins move on the surface.

3. Consider the following statements about Local Self-Governance in the Chola Empire:
1. Chola empire was the first empire in India to have a village as a basic unit of administration.
2. Ur was gathering of adult men in the village while Sabha was a general assembly of the village.
3. Sabha had the power to settle new lands and exercise ownership rights over them.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 2 and 3 only

Answer: C

Statement 1 is not correct: Local self-government was always a part of administration from Ancient to Medieval India. The village as a unit of administration was seen in areas under the Rashtrakuta empire also. But Chola empire provided a new impetus to local governance and decentralization of power.
• Statement 2 is not correct: Ur was a general assembly of the village while Sabha was gathering of adult men in the village. Ur was the general assembly of the village where local residents discussed their matters without any formal rule or procedure. The Sabha or Mahasabha was the most popular assembly where only the selected few and elders of the village took part and carried on the business by following a regular procedure. It wielded a great authority in the administration of the rural areas.
• Statement 3 is correct: Sabha enjoyed huge autonomy and managed affairs of the village and also took important decisions. It also coordinated with the committees in the village which looked into basic administration of the village. The Sabha could settle new lands, exercise ownership rights over them. It could also raise loans for the village and levy taxes.

4. Consider the following statements, with respect to the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC):
1. It is an ad-hoc body which is set up to examine a particular bill presented before the Parliament.
2. A JPC is authorised to collect evidence in oral or written form during the investigating process.
3. It has twice number of members from Lok Sabha as compared to those from Rajya Sabha.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer : D

The Joint Parliamentary committee (JPC) is an ad-hoc body which is set up for a given period of time and is aimed at addressing a specific issue and dissolved after submission of its report to Parliament
• It also examines a particular bill presented before the Parliament or for the purpose of investigating cases of financial irregularities in any government activity. Hence statement 1 is correct.
• A JPC is authorised to collect evidence in oral or written form or demand documents in connection with the matter. The proceedings and findings of the committee are confidential, except in matters of public interest. The Speaker has the final word in case of a dispute over calling for evidence. Hence statement 2 is correct.
• The committee’s members are decided by Parliament. The number of members can vary. There are twice as many Lok Sabha members as the Rajya Sabha. Hence statement 3 is correct.

5. Consider the following statements about the Kangra school of paintings:
1. It is inspired from the Vaishnavite traditions.
2. Soft colours including cool blues and greens were used in these paintings.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : C

Kangra painting is the pictorial art of Kangra, named after Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, a former princely state, which patronized the art.
• It became prevalent with the fading of Basohli school of painting in mid-18th century, and soon produced such a magnitude in paintings both in content as well as volume, that the Pahari painting school, came to be known as Kangra paintings.
• By the mideighteenth century the Kangra artists developed a style which breathed a new spirit into miniature painting.
• The source of inspiration was the Vaishnavite traditions. Hence statement 1 is correct.
• Soft colours including cool blues and greens, and a lyrical treatment of themes distinguished Kangra painting. Hence statement 2 is correct.

6. Consider the following statements with respect to Rampa Rebellion led by Alluri Sitaramaraju:
1. The Rebellion took place in the region of Rajmahal hills.
2. It preceded the launch of Non- Cooperation movement thus helped in mobilising tribal youth to participate in the movement.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : D

After the Chauri Chaura incident, the Congress Working Committee met at Bardoli in February 1922
and resolved to stop all activity that led to breaking of the law and to get down to constructive work. The elemental lower-class upsurge called forth in many areas by the Non-Cooperation movement did not subside immediately with the Bardoli retreat. But the most striking evidence of continued popular militancy came from the ever-restive semitribal ‘Rampa’ region north of the Godavari. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
• The Rampa rebellion represents a guerilla uprising in semitribal ‘Rampa’ region north of the Godavari between August 1922 and May 1924 led by Alluri Sitarama Raju. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
• The grievances of the tribals were the exploitation by moneylenders, and forest laws restricting shifting cultivation and age-old grazing rights. Sitaramaraju had been inspired by Non-Cooperation Movement to start village panchayats and a campaign against drink. The movement combined elements of ‘primitive rebellion’ with modern nationalism.
• Sitarama Raju ‘spoke highly of Mr Gandhi’, but considered ‘that violence is necessary’. Raju also won the grudging admiration of the British as a formidable guerilla tactician, who had armed his followers by successful raids on police stations. Raju was captured in May 1924, was shot dead.

7. Consider the following statements with respect to Socio-religious reform movements in the 19th century:
1. Theosophical Society repudiated the beliefs of reincarnation and karma.
2. Tilak campaigned to pass the Age of Consent Bill which had raised the age limit for marriage for girls from 10 to 12 years.
3. Dharma Sabha advocated for the abolition of practice of Sati.
4. The foundation of Prarthana Samaj preceded the foundation of Arya Samaj.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 2, 3 and 4 only

Answer : B

A group of westerners led by Madame H.P. Blavatsky and Colonel M.S. Olcott, who were inspired by
Indian thought and culture, founded the Theosophical Society in New York City, United States in 1875.
In 1882, they shifted their headquarters to Adyar, on the outskirts of Madras (at that time) in India. The
Society accepted the Hindu beliefs in reincarnation and karma, and drew inspiration from the philosophy of the Upanishads and samkhya, yoga and Vedanta schools of thought. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
• In 1890, when an eleven-year-old Phulamani Bai died while having sexual intercourse with her much older husband, the Parsi social reformer Behramji Malabari supported the Age of Consent Act, 1891 to raise the age of a girl’s eligibility for marriage. Tilak however, opposed the bill on the grounds that these bills, if passed, would amount to interference in the religious affairs of a group of Indians by a foreign government. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
• Radhakant Deb founded the Dharma Sabha in 1830. As an orthodox society, it stood for the preservation of the status quo in socio-religious matters, opposing even the abolition of sati. However, it favoured the promotion of Western education, even for girls. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
• The Prarthana Samaj was founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang. It was an off- shoot of Brahmo Samaj. It was a reform movement within Hinduism and concentrated on social reforms like inter-dining, inter-marriage, widow remarriage and uplift of women and depressed classes. Justice M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar joined it in 1870 and infused new strength to it.
• Arya Samaj is a monotheistic Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas. The samaj was founded by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati in April 1875.

8. Consider the following statements with respect to Bhakti movement in Maharashtra:
1. The Bhakti cult in Maharashtra centred around the shrine of Vithoba or Vitthal the presiding deity of Pandharpur.
2. Their compositions were called “Abhangas”.
3. Tukaram was contemporary of Shivaji and was part of the Varkari devotionalism tradition.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer : D

The Bhakti Movement in Maharashtra (Maharashtra Dharma) The Bhakti cult in Maharashtra centred around the shrine of Vithoba or Vitthal the presiding diety of Pandharpur. Who was regarded as a manifestation of Krishna. This movement is also known as the Pandharpur movement.
• The Pandharpur movement led to the development of Marathi literature, modification of caste exclusiveness, sanctification of family life, elevation of the status of women, spread of the spirit of humaneness and toleration, subordination of ritual to love and faith, and limitation of the excesses of polytheism.
• The Bhakti movement in Maharashtra is broadly divided into two sects. The first school of mystics is known as Varakaris, or the mild devotees of God Viththala of Pandharpur, and the second as Dharakaris, the devotee of God Rama.
• Jnaneswara, Namadeva, Ekanatha, Tukarama were the famous bhakti saints of the region. Their compositions were called “Abhangas” which means “unending”, are the devotional poems sung in praise of the god Vithoba.
• Gnanadeva was the founder of the Bhakti Movement in Maharashtra in the thirteenth century. It was called Maharashtra dharma. He was the founder of the Bhakti Movement in Maharashtra in the 13th century. Also known as Sant Dnyaneshwar. He wrote Gnaneswari a commentary of Bhagavad Gita.
• Tukaram, a contemporary of Sivaji. He was responsible for creating a background for Maratha nationalism. He opposed all social distinctions. Tukaram was part of the egalitarian, personalized Varkari devotionalism tradition.

9. Consider the following events:
1. Chittagong Armoury Raid took place.
2. Foundation of Hindustan Republic Association.
3. Kakori Train Robbery took place.
4. John Saunders who was involved in lati charge causing Lajpat Rai’s death was killed.
Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the above events?
(a) 1-2-3-4
(b) 1-3-2-4
(c) 2-3-4-1
(d) 3-2-4-1

Answer : C

Revolutionaries of northern Indian began their reorganisation under the leadership of Sachindranath Sanhya, Jogest Chatterjee and Ramprasad Bhismil. In October 1924, they met at Kanpur and founded the Hindustan Republic Association (HRA) and set out the objective of organising an armed revolution against colonial rule and establishing a Federal Republic of the United States of India with a government elected on the basis of adult franchise.
• To finance their organisation, the HRA leaders decided to organise dacoities against the government. On 9th August, 1925, ten revolutionaries held up the 8-Down rain from Saharanpur to Lucknow at Kakori and looted its official Cash. A large number of HRA leaders were tried in the Kakori Conspiracy case.
• Chittagong armoury raid was an attempt on 18 April 1930 to raid the armoury of police and auxiliary forces from the Chittagong armoury in the Bengal Presidency of British India by armed Indian independence fighters led by Surya Sen.
• Lala Lajpat Rai was died in October, 1928 due to lathi blows received during a lathi charge on an anti-Simon Commission procession. The HSRA vowed to avenge Rai’s death. Bhagat Singh, Azad and Rajguru shot dead Saunders, the police official responsible for the lathicharge in Lahore in December,1928,

10. In the context of medieval Indian history, consider the following statements:
1. The rayas of Vijayanagara were popularly termed as ashvapati or lord of horses.
2. Kudirai chettis were a local merchant community involved in horse-trading.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : B

The Vijayanagara kings competed with contemporary rulers – including the Sultans of the Deccan and the Gajapati rulers of Orissa – for control of the fertile river valleys and the resources generated by lucrative overseas trade.
• The rulers of Vijayanagara, who called themselves rayas. In the popular traditions of Vijayanagara, the Deccan Sultans are termed as ashvapati or lord of horses and the rayas are called narapati or lord of men. Gajapati literally means lord of elephants. This was the name of a ruling lineage that was very powerful in Orissa in the fifteenth century. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
• As warfare during these times depended upon effective cavalry, the import of horses from Arabia and Central Asia was very important for rival kingdoms. This trade was initially controlled by Arab traders. Local communities of merchants known as kudirai chettis or horse merchants also participated in these exchanges. From 1498 other actors appeared on the scene. These were the Portuguese, who arrived on the west coast of the subcontinent and attempted to establish trading and military stations. Their superior military technology, especially the use of muskets, enabled them to become important players in the tangled politics of the period. Hence statement 2 is correct.

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