1.) Who among the following Governor Generals created the Covenanted Civil Service of India which later came to be known as the Indian Civil Service ?
(a) Warren Hastings (b) Wellesley (c) Cornwallis (d) William Bentinck
Lord Cornwallis (1786-93) was the first to bring into existence and organize the civil services.
2.) Which amongst the following provided a common factor for tribal insurrection in India in the 19th century?
(a) Introduction of a new system of land revenue and taxation of tribal products.
(b) Influence of foreign religious missionaries in tribal areas.
(c) Rise of a large number of money lenders, traders and revenue farmers as middlemen in tribal areas.
(d) The complete disruption of the old agrarian order of the tribal communities.
The first option is rejected because it used the term “tribal products”. The second option is rejected because NOT in all areas, the impact of foreign missionaries was seen. The third option is also NOT correct, because not in all areas saw the rise of money lenders. The fourth option is correct and it includes everything what happened in that era. The most common thing was the foreign interference in the indigenous world of their own which dismantled the structure that existed since centuries.
3.) What was the immediate reason for Ahmad Shah Abdali to invade India and fight the third battle of Panipat ?
(a) He wanted to avenge the expulsion by Marathas of his viceroy Timur Shah from Lahore.
(b) The frustrated governor of Jalandhar Adina Beg Khan invited him to invade Punjab.
(c) He wanted to punish Mughal administration for non-payment of the revenues of the Chahar Mahal (Gujarat, Aurangabad, Sialkot and Pasrur).
(d) He wanted to annex the fertile plains of Punjab up to the borders of Delhi in his kingdom.
To avenge their expulsion of Timur Shah, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India for the fifth time in Oct. 1759, and finally conquered Punjab.
4.) With reference to Pondicherry (now Puducherry), consider the following statements:
- The first European power to occupy Pondicherry were the Portuguese.
- The second European power to occupy Pondicherry were the French.
- The English never occupied Pondicherry.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
The Portuguese established a factory in Pondicherry at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The second Europeans who occupied it were Dutch. English also invaded it in 1793 and returned it to French in 1814 after the treaty of Paris. Thus statement 1 only is correct.
5.) The tendency for increased litigation was visible after the introduction of the land settlement system of Lord Cornwallis in 1793. The reason for this is normally traced to which of the following provisions?
(a) Making Zamindar’s position stronger Vis-Vis the Ryot
(b) Making East India Company an overlord of Zamindars
(c) Making judicial system more efficient
(d) None of the (a), (b) and (c) above
That the reforms of Cornwallis had increased the litigation and the main reason for this was the Court Fee was removed and now every body could drag anybody to courts. The extension to right of appeal was also one of the reasons. Court fees were abolished by Cornwallis. Lawyers were to prescribe their fees. Ordinary people could sue the Government servants (Indians) if they committed mistakes. Inhuman punishments such as cutting limbs, cutting nose and ears were abolished. These are some of the reasons that led to increased litigation. The reasons given in the options don’t seem to fit in the criteria of the reforms of Cornwallis.