1.) Which of the following ecosystems represent an Ecotone?
A. Wetland ecosystem
B. Equatorial ecosystem
C. Marine ecosystem
D. None of the above.
Explanation: An ecotone is a transitional area between two different ecosystems and a wetland is a transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems.
2.) Which of the following global biodiversity hot spots are located in India either partly/completely?
i. Eastern Himalayas
ii. Indo-Burma Region
iii. Western Ghats
A. i and iii only
B. ii, iii and iv
C. i, iii and iv
D. i, ii, iii and iv
Explanation: India has all four global biodiversity hot spots.
▪ Himalayas: Includes the entire Indian Himalayan region (and that falling in Pakistan, Tibet,
Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar)
▪ Indo-Burma: Includes entire North-eastern India, except Assam and Andaman group of
Islands (and Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and southern China)
▪ Sundaland: Includes Nicobar group of Islands (and Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei,
▪ Western Ghats and Sri Lanka: Includes entire Western Ghats (and Sri Lanka)
3.) Which of the following organisations designates biodiversity hotspots and mega diverse countries?
C. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
D. Conservation International (CI)
Explanation: Conservation International (CI) adopted Myers’ hotspots to build a global list of
biodiversity hotspots and designate countries as megadiverse based on the principle criterion of
endemism in species.
4.) Consider the following statements
i. As one approaches the Polar Regions, one finds larger and larger populations of fewer and
ii. Decline in biodiversity richness with latitude may be faster in the Northern than in the
iii. The peaks in biodiversity richness may not lie actually at the Equator itself but some distance
Which of the above statements are correct?
A. i only
B. i and ii only
C. ii and iii only
D. i, ii and iii
Explanation:▪ Species diversity decreases as we move towards the North Pole due to decrease in productivity.
▪ Decline in biodiversity richness with latitude may be faster in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere due to greater landmass present in northern hemisphere.
▪ Even though we witness highest insolation exactly at the equator, productivity is relatively reduced due to erosion of nutrients from the soil caused by high surface run-offs. As a result, peaks in biodiversity richness may not lie actually at the Equator itself but some distance away.
5.) Which of the following is not a site for in-situ conservation?
A. Biosphere Reserve
B. Zoological park
C. National Park
D. Wildlife sanctuaries
Explanation: In situ conservation is the approach of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat. Ex: Biosphere Reserves, National Parks and Wild-life Sanctuaries. Zoological Park is a site for ex-situ conservation (where threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in special setting where they can be protected and given special care)