1. Which of the following Biosphere Reserve in India is not listed in the Man and Biosphere Program of the UNESCO?

A. Nokrek
B. Pachmarhi
C. Similipal
D. Dandeli

Answer: D
Explanation: Dandeli is a national park not a biosphere reserve.

2. Which of the following committees dealt with Eco-sensitive zones in the Western Ghats?

i. Madhav Gadgil committee
ii. TSR Subramanian committee
iii. Kasturirangan committee

A. i only
B. ii only
C. i and iii only
D. i, ii and iii

Answer: C
Explanation: Madhav Gadgil committee was setup to recommend the implementation of ESZ in Western Ghats. Its report was opposed by state governments, industry and local communities as it was considered to be prioritizing environment conservation over economic development. So the central government setup the Kasturirangan committee to review the Madhav Gadgil report.

3. The Zemu glacier which gives birth to the Teesta River is located in which of the following biosphere reserves?

A. Manas Biosphere Reserve
B. Kaziranga Biosphere Reserve
C. Kangchenjunga Biosphere Reserve
D. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve

Answer: C
Explanation: The Kangchenjunga biosphere reserve was recently selected as a UNESCO world heritage site and it is the first mixed (both cultural and natural significance) world heritage site in India. It is home to the Zemu Glacier, the endangered snow leopard, red panda and also hosts the Lepcha tribes.

4. The Ramsar Convention on Conservation of Wetlands recognises which of the following type/s of wetlands?

i. Marine/Coastal Wetlands
ii. Inland Wetlands
iii. Human-made Wetlands

A. ii only
B. i and iii only
C. ii and iii only
D. i, ii and iii

Answer: D
Explanation: According to Ramsar Convention, three major classes of wetlands are identified:
1) Marine/Coastal Wetlands
2) Inland Wetlands
3) Human-made Wetlands
These are further subdivided by the type of water: fresh / saline / brackish / alkaline; and further may be subdivided based on whether they are permanent or temporary.

5. Which of the following represent adaptations in mangroves to thrive in harsh conditions?

i. Halophytes
ii. Pneumatophores
iii. Buttress roots

A. ii only
B. iii only
C. ii and iii only
D. i, ii and iii

Answer: D
Explanation: Mangroves are salt tolerant and are also called Halophytes. They have a complex salt filtration systems and a complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to low oxygen (Anoxic) conditions via Pneumatophores, which are specialized root-like structures which stick out of the soil like straws for breathing. They also absorb gases like nitrogen directly and store them. Buttress roots, which are aerial extensions of lateral surface roots and form only in certain species. Buttress roots stabilize the tree, especially in shallow, saturated, nutrient poor soils.

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